Map of clientelism in Georgia

 

 

Electoral system

Majority systemGeorgia has a mixed electoral system for Parliamentary elections. Majority based elections are held within the single mandate election district. The election districts coincide with the municipality division, therefore the voter registered on the territory of each municipality is represented by one deputy in the Parliament of Georgia.

Party ListGeorgia has a mixed electoral system for Parliamentary elections. Voting within the Party List/Proportionate system involves the closed electoral lists – the voter votes for the party, that on its hand, selects the candidates for the parliamentary seats from its party list as according to the votes received.

Transfer Types:

Equalizing – the funds allocated from the State Budget for the budget of the local self-government unit in accordance with the formula set forth in the Budgetary Code of Georgia for the purpose of ensuring the fulfilment of their powers, the directions of which are independently defined by the self-governing unit;

Targeted funds received from the state budget and / or the financial assistance from the republican budget of the Autonomous Republic by the local self-government budget for the purpose of carrying out delegated powers;

Special/Capital Special transfer is the financial assistance designated for the elimination of the consequences (damages) of natural disasters, ecological and other disasters, epidemics and other emergencies; Capital Transfer is the Financial assistance designated for the implementation of the capital projects;

Legend: Top 5 parties based on votes received in Parliamentary elections

 

Georgia has a mixed electoral system for Parliamentary Elections. Out of 150 members of the Parliament 77 members of the Georgian Parliament are being elected according to party list/proportionate electoral vote, while the rest of 73– according to majoritarian.

Municipal budgets are separate from Georgia’s State Budget and the budgets of the two autonomous republics of Georgia – Abkhazia and Adjara. In order to implement their duties and responsibilities, local government units receive the 4 types of transfers from the central budget, in addition to their own revenues:

  1. Equalization Transfers
  2. Targeted Transfers
  3. Special Transfers
  4. Capital Transfers (until 2014, was part of special transfers)

The clientelism map displays information on transfers made from 2011 to 2016 and coincides with two parliamentary elections 2012 and 2016. The breakdown of transfers is tied to results each party (5 major parties in Georgia) had in majoritarian and party list elections. From 2011 until 2012, Untied National Movement (UNM) was in power, from 2013 as of today the Georgian Dream (GD). Nevertheless, in 2012 and 2016, the opposition party (UNM) won in several districts (electoral districts coincide with municipal territories). The map shows that the loss in several municipalities did not have a significant influence on transfers made to those municipalities. Even the bigger municipalities such as Kutaisi, Zugdidi, Telavi, Rustavi or Gori have a steady increase in transfers on average, which follows the pattern of increasing the state budget from 2011 onwards. Insignificant decrease in transfers can be seen in municipalities where the ruling GD both won and lost, therefore no misuse of transfers as a political retribution instrument can be identified.

*The map excludes municipalities of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, as well as the occupied Territories of Georgia (Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia and South Ossetia Region)

 

Project funded by the Open Society Foundations. The content of this material does not necessarily represent the official position of the Open Society Foundations. The entire responsibility for the correctness and consistency of the information presented lies with the initiators of the project.